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Impact on yield

Yield levels

Fig. 1. Five year running average winter wheat yield in 6 EU countries. Source: Eurostat.

Wheat is the most important cereal crop grown in EU. The yield levels and cropping conditions vary considerably between the different EU countries (Fig. 1). In the countries most suitable for wheat production (Germany, the UK, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Ireland, Denmark) average yields vary between 7 and 8 tonnes/ha, whereas in countries with more restricted cropping conditions (Hungary, Italy, Spain, Poland, Greece) yields vary between 3 and 5 tonnes/ha.

Yield losses

Yield losses from specific diseases in the 8 countries involved in the ENDURE activity were estimated, (Table 1). Based on these estimates septoria leaf blotch, brown rust, take-all and fusarium head blight are considered as the most important diseases in the main wheat growing countries with respect to yield loss and quality of grain. Yield losses between 5 and 15 dt/ha are common in many regions. Yellow rust, powdery mildew, tan spot and eyespot are also regarded as important diseases; however, their distribution is much more regional.

Table 1. Estimated yield losses [dt/ha] caused by specific diseases in different countries. Source: ENDURE

Country Tapesia S. tritici P. striiformis P. triticina Fusarium Take all Blumeria
FR 3 15 0 10 2 0-20 1
DE - 3.2 2.5 2.7 0.4 - 1.7
UK 2 10 1 1 0.5 8 1
NL 1 5 1 1 2 1 1
PL 5 4 1 10 1 12 -
DK 2 8 1 1 1 3 2
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Revised 09.06.2017